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  • WAPUSH (Women's AP U.S. History) Curriculum

    Resources for Teaching Women in AP U.S. History (WAPUSH) This page is a work in progress, more resources are coming soon Period 1: 1491-1607 1.1: Contextualizing Period 1 Woman as creator Lilith Two spirit 1.2: Native American Societies before European Contact Haudenosanee Matrilineal societies Longhouses Pueblo women 1.3: European Exploration in the Americas Doctrine of Discovery​ 1.4: Columbian Exchange, Spanish Exploration, and Conquest 1.5: Labor, Slavery, and Caste in the Spanish Colonial System 1.6: Cultural Interactions among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans Herbal healers (Curanderas) Midwives Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline Period 3: 1754-1800 3.2: Seven Years' War 3.3: Taxation without Representation 3.4: Philosophical Foundations of the American Revolution 3.5: The American Revolution Public Universal Friend​ 3.6: Influence of Revolutionary Ideals 3.7: Articles of Confederation 3.8: Constitutional Convention Federalists v. Anti-Federalists 3.9: The Constitution 3.10: Shaping a New Republic 3.11: Developing an American Identity 3.12: Movement in the Early Republic Reading Guide Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Through Women's Eyes Reading Guide (6th edition) Visual Timeline Period 5: 1844-1877 5.2: Manifest Destiny 5.3: Mexican-American War 5.4: Compromise of 1850 5.5: Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences 5.6: Failure of Compromise 5.7: Election of 1860 & Secession 5.8: Military Conflict in the Civil War 5.9: Government Policies during the Civil War 5.10: Reconstruction 5.11: Failure of Reconstruction Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline Period 7: 1890-1945 7.2: Imperialism: Debates Imperial suffragism Overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani 7.3: Spanish-American War 7.4: Progressives Feminism as an ideology​ Inez Milholland Ida B. Wells Suffragists Nora Stanton Blatch Blarney Zitkala-Sa Adelina Otero-Warren Gail Laughlin Tye Leung Schulze Phyllis Terrell Alice Paul Lucy Burns Women radicals​ IWW (Wobblies) Emma Goldman Heterodoxy Club 7.5: World War I: Military & Diplomacy 7.6: World War I: The Home Front 7.7: 1920s: Innovations in Communications & Technology 7.8: 1920s: Cultural & Political Controversies ​​ 7.9: Great Depression 7.10: New Deal 7.11: Interwar Foreign Policy 7.12: World War II: Mobilization 7.13: World War II: Diplomacy 7.14: Postwar Diplomacy Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline Period 9: 1980-Present 9.2: Reagan & Conservatism 9.3: End of the Cold War 9.4: A Changing Economy 9.5: Migration & Immigration in the 1990s & 2000s 9.6: Challenges of the 21st Century Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline Period 2: 1607-1754 2.1: Contextualizing Period 2 2.2: European Colonization Antinomianism, Anne Hutchinson & American individualism Coverture & English common law 2.3: Regions of British Colonies 2.4: Transatlantic Trade 2.5: Interactions between American Indians and Europeans La Malinche 2.6: Slavery in the British Colonies Women in West Africa Racializing slavery 2.7: Colonial Society and Culture Gender & Sexuality in the pre-revolutionary era Seduction Suits Women in the Great Awakening White women’s religious fervor African American religious practices Anne Hutchinson Thomas(ine) Hall New Jersey experiments with suffrage Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline Period 4: 1800-1848 4.1: Contextualizing Period 4 4.2: Political & Economic Transformations 4.3: Politics & Regional Interests Petitions by women Interracial organizing 4.4: America on the World Stage 4.5: Market Revolution: Industrialization 4.6: Market Revolution: Society & Culture 4.7: Expanding Democracy 4.8: Jackson & Federal Power Gender politics in the early White House The Peggy Eaton affair 4.9: Development of an American Culture Judith Sargent Murray & Mercy Otis Warren debate 4.10: Second Great Awakening ​ Shakers & Quakers 4.11: Age of Reform Abolitionism 4.12: African Americans in the Early Republic 4.13: Society of the South in the Early Republic White supremacist women​ Patriarchy on the plantation Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline Period 6: 1865-1898 6.2: Westward Expansion: Economic Development 6.3: Westward Expansion: Social & Cultural Developments 6.4: "New South" 6.5: Technological Innovation 6.6: Rise of Industrial Capitalism 6.7: Labor in the Gilded Age 6.8: Immigration and Migration in the Gilded Age 6.9: Responses to Immigration in the Gilded Age 6.10: Development of the Middle Class 6.11: Reform in the Gilded Age Indigenous women​​ Sarah Winnemucca Spiritualism Victoria Woodhull​ Ida Craddock Temperance Women’s Christian Temperance Union Muscular Christianity Women's Suffrage Elizabeth Cady Stanton Sojourner Truth Victoria Woodhull Harriet Tubman Lucy Stone & Henry Blackwell Mary Edwards Walker Frances Ellen Watkins Harper National American Woman’s Suffrage Association National Woman's Suffrage Association American Woman’s Suffrage Association Mormon suffragists Emmeline B. Wells 6.12: Controversies over the Role of Government in the Gilded Age ​Minor v. Happersett 6.13: Politics in the Gilded Age​ Populism ​ Women in the Populist Party Lutie A. Lytle Charlotte Perkins Gilman Clara Barton Carry Nation Ida Tarbell Madame Restell Susette La Flesche Tibbles “Bright Eyes” Emma Goldman Anna Julia Cooper Nellie Bly Belva Lockwood Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline Period 8: 1945-1980 8.2: Cold War Helen Gahagan Douglas & the election of 1950 in California Women in the Lavender Scare Daughters of Bilitis Phyllis Lyon & Del Martin Ernestine Eckstein 8.3: Red Scare 8.4: Economy after 1945 8.5: Culture after 1945 8.6: Early Steps in Civil Rights Movement (1940s/50s) 8.7: America as a World Power 8.8: Vietnam War 8.9: Great Society 8.10: African American Civil Rights Movement (1960s) 8.11: Civil Rights Movement Expands NOW​ NARAL Shirley Chisholm Andrea Dworkin Catherine MacKinnon Republican feminists ​Jill Ruckelshaus Mary Louise Smith 8.12: Youth Culture of the 1960s 8.13: Environment & Natural Resources from 1968-1980 8.14: Society in Transition Pauli Murray Margaret Sanger Jovita Idar Rose Schneiderman Margaret Chase Smith Bessie Colman Eleanor Roosevelt Francis Perkins Rosa Parks Mourning Dove Grace Murray Hopper Amelia Earhart Women in the conservative movement STOP ERA campaign Eagle Forum John Birch Society Phyllis Schlafly Beverly LaHaye Reading Guides Fabric of a Nation Reading Guide (2nd edition) Give Me Liberty Reading Guide (7th edition) Visual Timeline

  • Women's History in High School

    Welcome to Women's History in High School! Kristen Kelly & Serene Williams are educators committed to inclusive secondary education and student led public history projects . T ogether with their students, they are working with the encouragement of the College Board to create an AP course focused on women. Coverage of their campaign for an AP U.S. Women's History course has appeared on CNN , Ms. Magazine , 19th News and more

  • Women & the U.S. Constitution | Women's History in High School

    ​ Preamble “We the people” Women are recognized as “persons” based on the interpretations of the 14th Amendment Article I Section 8 (enumerated powers) Congressional authority to regulate abortion based on commerce clause and the spending clause Article II Article II uses “he/his” pronouns to refer to the president in the following sections Section I: “He shall hold Office during the Term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows…” “The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.” “Before he shall enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” Section II: “The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the MIlitia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.” Section III: “He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.” Article IV: Full Faith and Credit Clause: Relevant to marriage and divorce state laws Privileges and Immunities Clause: Article IV, Section 2 4th Amendment: Relevant to women’s physical safety “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated…” 14th Amendment: Section 1: Clause: Privileges & Immunities Equal Protection Clause: Most important constitutional clause to protect women’s rights & LGBTQ+ rights. Source of intermediate scrutiny for sex discrimination Due Process: right to privacy established in Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Cases: Roe v. Wade (1973) (abortion rights), Maher v. Roe (1977) (no public funding for abortions not medically necessary), Harris v. McRae (1980) (upheld the Hyde Amendment) Section 5: Clause: Congressional enforcement Could be used to uphold congressional power to regulate abortion Supreme Court Cases: Minor v. Happersett (1875) : The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the privileges & immunities clause did not protect women’s right to vote Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) : Privileges & immunities clause is limited to federal citizenship and does not protect individual or state level rights 19th Amendment: Cases: Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) : Minimum wage laws for working women are unconstitutional Clauses: “...as the twentieth century unfolded, federal courts expanded women’s political and civil rights, but they did so on the basis of the Fourteenth Amendment, rather than the Nineteenth Amendment. The Nineteenth Amendment became somewhat of a constitutional orphan in American jurisprudence, rarely interpreted or cited as foundational to the court’s analysis of underlying constitutional doctrine.” (Paula A. Monopoli, Constitutional Orphan: Gender Equality and the Nineteenth Amendment, page. 146) Legal interpretations “Thin and Thick Conceptions of the Nineteenth Amendment Right to Vote and Congress’s Power to Enforce It” by Richard L. Hasen and Leah M. Litman “She The People: The Nineteenth Amendment, Sex Equality, Federalism, and The Family” by Reva B. Siegel Legal Concepts: Substantive due process: Lochner v. New York (1905) : Struck down a law in New York that limited the hours bakery employees could work Books by Women About the U.S. Constitution Becker, Mary, Cynthia Grant Bowman, and Morrison Torrey. Cases and Materials on Feminist Jurisprudence: Taking Women Seriously. West Pub., 1994. Bridges, Khiara M. The Poverty of Privacy Rights. Stanford, CA: Stanford Law Books, an imprint of Stanford University Press, 2017. DeWolf, Rebecca. Gendered Citizenship: The Original Conflict over the Equal Rights Amendment, 1920-1963. University of Nebraska Press, 2021. Monopoli., Paula A. Constitutional Orphan: Gender Equality and the Nineteenth Amendment: Oxford University Press, 2020. Paul, Alice. "Conversations with Alice Paul: Woman Suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment." Interview by Amelia Frye. Suffragists Oral History Project. Last modified 1976. Accessed April 15, 2022. https://oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt6f59n89c&doc.view=entire_text. Roberts, Dorothy E. Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. 2nd ed. New York: Vintage, 1999. Sneider, Allison L. Suffragists in an Imperial Age: U.S. Expansion and the Woman Question : 1870-1929. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2008. Suk, Julie Chi-hye. After Misogyny: How the Law Fails Women and What to Do about It. University of California Press, 2023. Women are not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution which means it can take additional work to explain to students how they are constitutionally protected and how the Constitution is gendered. Below is a list of constitutional clauses and Supreme Court cases that have a direct impact on women & constitutionalism.

  • AP US Government/Women in Politics | Women's History in High School

    AP U.S. Government/ Women in Politics Course Reader Materials This page is a work in progress, more resources are coming soon Unit 1: Foundations of American Democracy Women & the Constitution The entire Constitution was written by men Timeline of Women's Activism Coverture, Comstock & Penumbras (power point) Native women influence on the Constitution (power point) Founding Figures in Unit 1​ Public Universal Friend​ Maria Stewart Abigail Adams Unit 2: Institutions of Government Legislative Branch Discharge Petitions​ 1970s: Martha Griffiths & the ERA 2024: Ayanna Pressley & the ERA Executive Branch Judicial Branch SCOTUS cases about women Unit 3: Civil Rights & Civil Liberties 14th Amendment ​​ For almost 100 years, SCOTUS allowed discrimination against women Since the 1970s, sex has intermediate scrutiny Waves of Feminism Timeline of the Equal Rights Amendment Right to Privacy (power point) Romantic paternalism Women Pioneers of Civil Liberties Crystal Eastman​ Emma Goldman Madame Restell Rose Schneiderman Ida B. Wells Victoria Woodhull Unit 4: American Political Ideologies & Beliefs Feminist Theorists PEW Study: Women & Political Leadership Unit 5: Political Participation Women Who Ran for President (power point) Women Who Ran for President & VP (handout) Founding Figures for Political Participation​ Anne Hutchinson​ Bella Abzug Barbara Gittings Flo Kennedy Women's Political History in AP U.S. Government & Politics Teach Pauli Murray 1940: arrested for refusing to move to the back of a segregated bus 1948: Candidate for New York City Council 1954: Brown v. Board of Education 1961: Appointed by JFK to Presidential Commission on the Status of Women 1964: Helped write Title VII of the Civil Rights Act ​ 1966: Co-founded National Organization for Women (NOW) 1970s: Campaigns/marches for the Equal Rights Amendment 1971: Ruth Bader Ginsburg credits Murray with legal analysis critical to establishing the equal protection clause applies to women in Reed v. Reed 2020: SCOTUS ruled in Bostock v. Clayton County that "sex" mentioned in Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects from discrimination at work on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity Quotes "Given the tendency of privileged groups to retain their power and privilege and to play one disadvantaged group off against another, and given the accelerating militancy of Women's Liberation, there is a grave danger of a head on collision of this movement with the movement for black liberation unless our decision makers recognize and implement the rights of all."​ Testimony, House Committee on Education and Labor, 1970​

  • Modern Women's Issues | Women's History in High School

    Modern Women's Issues ​ 1980s Argentina Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo Bolivia Domitila Barrios de La Chungara El Salvador​ Organización de Mujeres Salvadoreñas por la Paz Philippines Corazon Aquino​​ 1990s South Africa’s transition to democracy Asante Queen Mothers 1993 UN World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna 1995 UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing Women Presidents/Prime Ministers Chandrika Kumaratunga (Sri Lanka, 1994-2005) Violeta Chamorro (Nicaragua) 2000s ​Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan(Sept. 14, 2001) General topics Constitutional Convention (Chile) Las Tesis (Chile) 100 Elles (Geneva, Switzerland) 100 Women and Thousands More(Switzerland)

  • Women's Liberation Second Wave of Feminism | Women's History in High School

    Women's Liberation Movement & the Second Wave of Feminism ​ 1960s ​Annie Jiagge (Ghana) 1970s Movimiento Nacional de Mujeres (National Women’s Movement-Mexico) Magaly Pineda (Dominican Republic) Fatima Mernissi , a founder of Islamic feminism (Morocco) Elizabeth Reid (Australia) State feminism (Arab world) 1975 International Women’s Year Conference (Mexico City) World Plan of Action Domitila and the Housewives Committee Attendees included Betty Friedan, Jehan Sadat (Egypt), Germaine Greer (Australia), Valentina Tereshkova (USSR), Leah Rabin (Israel) and Bella Abzug ​​​​Women’s Ordination Conference founded

  • Long 19th Century | Women's History in High School

    Long 19th Century ​ African women leaders 1880s Yoko, aka Madame Yoko of the Mende (Sierra Leone) Feminism in the Long 19th Century Organizations German Woman’s Association International Council of Women (1st global women’s NGO) Slavery Madam Efunroye Tinubu (Nigeria)​ 1840: World Anti-Slavery Convention (England) Anne Knight (Britain)​ Jewish women League of Jewish Women founded (Germany) ​Victorian Era Saartjie (Sarah Baartman)​​ (South Africa) Josephine Butler (England) Dr. James Barry (England) Gertrude Bell (England & Middle East) Radical politics/revolutionaries Vera Figner (Russia) ​Sophia Perovskaya (Russia) Qiu Jin (China) Stella Browne (UK) The Freewoman (UK feminist weekly magazine) Reform 1848​ Jeanne Déroin (France) Seneca Falls Convention (United States) 1880s & 1890s Hind Nawfal (Egypt) Louise Lawson (Australia) Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati (India) 1910: First International feminine Congress (Argentina) Bertha Pappenheim (Jewish feminist in Germany)​ Adelaide Smith Casely Hayford (South Africa) South Asia Lakshimi Bai (Sepoy Rebellion)​​ East Asia 1880s: Kishida Toshiko 1898 Civil Code (Japan)​

  • Transnational Suffrage History Research Topics | Women's History in High School

    Transnational Suffrage History 1850s ​ Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon (England) 1860s Emily Davies (England) Elizabeth Garrett (England) 1880s Ichikawa Fusae, Hiratsukà Raichō and Oku Mumeo petition for suffrage (Japan) Louisa Lawson (Australia) 1890s Kate Sheppard (New Zealand)​ 1904 International Woman Suffrage Alliance (Germany) 1909 5th Congress of International Woman Suffrage Alliance Speech by Carrie Chapman Catt (United States) 1910 Hubertine Auclert (France)​​ 1890s-1910s: Suffragette movement (Britain,Canada) Emmeline Pankhurst, Sylvia Pankhurst, Cristabel Pankhurst, Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (Britain) Dr. Emily Howard Jennings Stowe (Canada) Catholic Women’s Suffrage Society (UK) Netherlands Aletta Henriette Jacobs (Netherlands) Suffragette & physician Rosa Manus ​​ 1920s International Alliance of Women for Suffrage and Equal Citizenship Yamakawa Kikue (Japan) 1931 Suffrage approved in Spain 1940s​ Durriyyah Shafiq (Egypt)​

  • Early Modern Era | Women's History in High School

    Early Modern Era ​ European Witch Trials (modern day Germany) 16th century Katharina Zell (Theologian-modern day Germany) Moderata Fonte , Venetian feminist Malintzin (aka La Malinche, Yucatán Peninsula) Queen Amina (Nigeria) Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (Mexico) Scold's Bridle (Scotland) 17th Century​ Dahomey warrior women (Benin)​​ Kimpa Vita (Kongo) 18th Century Catherine the Great​​ The Enlightenment Manifesto by the Society for the Emancipation of Women (France) Mary Astell (England) Mary Hays (England) Atlantic Revolutions American Revolution Public Universal Friend Abigail Adams Phyllis Wheatley Deborah Sampson French Revolution Olympe de Gouges Napoleon's Civil Code (1804) Haitian Revolution Cécile Fatiman Marie-Jeanne Lamartinière Victoria Montou (aka “Toya”) Latin American Revolutions War & Motherhood in the 19th Century ​

  • Women in the Classical Era | Women's History in High School

    Women During the Classical Era 500 BCE-500 CE Women & the Han Dynasty Ban Zhao (China) Southeast Asia Trung Sisters (Vietnam)​ Roman Empire Spread of patriarchy​​ Boudicca (England) Women During the Postclassical Era 500 CE-1500 CE Spread of Islam Aisha & Khadija Abbasid era Khayzuran East Asia Empress Wu Zhao (China) Queen Seondeok (Korea) Western Europe Hildegarde of Bingen (11th century-modern day Germany) Joan of Arc Eastern Europe​ Theodora (Byzantine Empress)​ Empress Irene (Byzantium) Queen Tamar

  • Women in the Ancient World | Women's History in High School

    Ancient World General topics Egalitarianism & kinship Hindu Gods & Goddesses Origins of patriarchy Women & Hammurabi’s Code Tomyris & Cyrus the Great (Persia) Venus of Willendorf Arabia Makeda (10th century BCE) China Empress Lu Egypt ​ Hatshepsut Zakuti (600s BCE) Iraq/Mesopotamia Enheduanna Babylon Nitocris (6th century BCE)​​ Greece Cleopatra Thea (120 BCE) Spartan women Galen Yoruba & Ajé (Spiritual power--West Africa)

  • Women in AP Comparative Government & Politics | Women's History in High School

    Women in AP Comparative Government & Politics This page is a work in progress, more resources are coming soon Political Systems, Regimes, Governments Mexico China Nigeria Russia Iran United Kingdom ​ Political Culture & Participation Mexico Zapatista women China ​Xiao Lu , performance artist Nigeria Russia Hunger Strikes​ Elizaveta Koval'skaia Pussy Riot​ Iran United Kingdom Hunger Strikes​ Marion Wallace Dunlop (Scotland/suffragette) Images of suffragette hunger strikers​ Dolours Price (Northern Ireland)​ Marian Price (Northern Ireland) Political & Economic Changes and Development Mexico China Nigeria Russia ​ Russia adds 'LGBT movement' to official list of extremists and terrorists Iran United Kingdom General Resources The World's Abortion Laws​ Political Institutions Mexico China Nigeria Russia Iran United Kingdom ​Margaret Thatcher General Resources World Constitutions​ Party & Electoral Systems and Citizen Organizations Mexico China Nigeria Russia Iran United Kingdom General Course Resources Gender Gap in 9 Charts​ Gender Inequality Index Protection against gender discrimination in Constitutions

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